The Evolution of the Femme Fatale


Welcome to the Lucky 13 Film Club spotlighting the bad luck charm, the femme fatale. Virtuoso BILL WHITE at Cinema Penitentiary Diaries agreed to be the guest contributor this month. Thank you, Bill! He discusses her roots and fermentation through the 1960s:

Vamps, vixens, sirens, ghosts, wasp women, nightclub singers, faithless wives, …..If you are contemplating suicide by woman, you have plenty of options.  The femme fatale, or deadly female, has been a central figure in literature and myth since mankind developed an imagination.  In films, it all started in 1915 with Theda Bara as The Vampire in A Fool There Was.  And so many fools have since followed the deadly female to destruction, be it physical, moral, spiritual, economic, or social. Some, like George O’ Brien’s The Man, in Sunrise: A Song of Two Humans (1927, F.W.Murnau), escape through love, faith, and redemption. Others, like  Emil Jannings’ professor Rath, victim of nightclub singer Lola in Joseph von Sternberg’s 1930 The Blue Angel, are not so lucky.

Annex - Dietrich, Marlene (Blue Angel, The)_02

Marlene Dietrich’s Lola has been a prototype for the predatory nightclub singer that has persisted for nearly a century, with Rita Hayworth’s Gilda one of its most popular incarnations.  By the time Janet Leigh’s Cherry showed up in the 1966 adaptation of Norman Mailer’s novel An American Dream, this character type had gone beyond both its Berlin Cabaret origins and film noir trappings to become a vengeful harridan of the deadliest order, with her final line, “What did you expect from a whore?” still awaiting an answer fifty years later.


But not all femme fatales are vengeful witches. In Cat People (1942, Jacques Tourneur) Simone Simon plays Irena, a woman who, terrified that erotic arousal will turn her into  murderous leopard, avoids sexual relations with her husband. Not so with Shirley MacLaine’s serial widow in the frothy comedy, What a Way to Go, who keeps marrying men who are destined to get rich and die young, although she doesn’t mean them any harm. Then there are the bad girls who prove deadly only to themselves when they try to reform.  Gloria Graham’s Debbie Marsh (The Big Heat, 1953, Fritz Lang) and Jean Peters’ Candy (Pickup on South Street, 1953, Sam Fuller)  are examples of tramps whose turning of a new leaf gains them nothing but a bullet in the gut.

sm_La fiamma del peccato_loc

Then there are the relatively decent chaps who are enchanted into a life of crime by sociopathic females. In Joseph H. Lewis’s Gun Crazy (1950),  Bart Tare (John Dall) loves shooting guns for the sport of it, but his girlfriend Annie Laurie Starr (Peggy Cummins), loves killing people with them. Bart soon joins her in the killing, and they both end up dead.  But usually the victim of the femme fatale has a touch of larceny in his heart to begin with. It sure doesn’t take much for Phyllis (Barbara Stanwyck) to seduce Walter Neff (Fred MacMurray) into maximizing her husband’s insurance policy before knocking him off in Billy Wilder’s 1944 classic, Double Indemnity.

Wilder’s picture might be the model for subsequent film noirs on the order of The Postman Always Rings Twice (1946), but it is by no means a universal standard by which to measure the femme fatale.   In fact, the beast comes in so many guises that I don’t believe such a standard is possible.  We have the biblical femme fatale, marvelously embodied by Hedy Lemarr in Cecil B. DeMille’s 1949 Samson and Delilah,  the female ghost in endless Japanese tales, most memorably portrayed by Machiko Kyô as Lady Wakasa in Kenji Mizoguchi’s unforgettable 1953 classic Ugetsu,  Ibsen’s Hedda Gabler, perhaps the most evil personage of modern drama, played by Ingrid Bergman in Alex Segal’s 1963 television movie, and the vampire heroine of Joseph Sheridan Le Fanu’s 1871 gothic serial, Carmilla,  which inspired countless films beginning with Carl Dreyer’s 1932 Vampyr, and including Roger Vadim’s 1960, Blood and Roses, which starred his wife Annette.


The sixties continued with a further evolution of the femme fatale, including Francois Truffaut’s 1969 throwback to the noir era, Mississippi Mermaid, featuring Catherine Deneuve, as well as modern variations on the siren archetype in Monte Hellman’s 1966 western, The Shooting.  And as long as we have stupid guys and devious gals, the femme fatale will continue to evolve.

Cindy’s take on it:  1970s to the Present 

Sex-appeal is a common denominator with all femme fatales through the decades. She exudes a powerful spell–the anticipation of sexual passion via body language combined with an aura of mysterious detachment. It is a heavy perfume few men can ignore.

The Emasculaters 

They are out to punish. These heartless emasculaters get off manipulating others. Often, they coax out the worst in a male to actualize their perverted prophesy. After driving him to violence they justify, “See? I told you, all men are pricks.” Debra Winger in Black Widow (1984), John Dahl’s The Last Seduction (1994), and Sharon Stone in Basic Instinct (1992) are a few that come to mind.  

The Complicated 

If a Madeleine Elster enters your life, you better run for the hills. Confused and a little crazy, men feel drawn to them and become a little crazy themselves. In one scene they’re slapping them, and in the next, they risk everything to save them. Why? Because deep down, men feel the troubled sexpot will save them. In L.A. Confidential (1997), Veronica Lake look-alike, Lynn Bracken, played by Kim Basinger, fits this mold.  Michelle Pfeiffer has made a career by playing sizzling-and-confused to perfection.

For Freedom 

Surviving in a patriarchal world ain’t easy. Girls don’t wish to grow up to be prostitutes; they are pawns and victims of male predators. Some femme fatales use their beauty to acquire eventual freedom from their oppressors. No better examples for this category exist than Faye Dunaway in Chinatown (1974) or Meryl Streep in The French Lieutenant’s Woman (1981). 

The Kick-Ass Present 

After Linda Hamilton’s performance in Terminator 2, a redefining of sexiness pushed femme fatales to a level of ultra-independence. As genders have become androgynous, in the last 15 years, the femme fatale has changed. She has become a super-hero (or villain).

Sexy and proud, she controls her own life. She can think and fight. She can kill as well as GI-Joe. Gone is vulnerability and dependency on a man. Do you agree?

My favorite femme fatale is Ingrid Bergman in Notorious (1946). Who is yours? 

How do you see the evolution of the femme fatale


87 thoughts on “The Evolution of the Femme Fatale

Add yours

  1. I think you nailed the difference. The so called vamps were largely stereotyped visions of the “bad” woman that it was perfectly OK for the man to exploit. Today’s versions are just as badass as any man and certainly not to attempt to exploit, unless you want a face full of lead. 🙂

    1. Ian–what a paradox–historically, a woman is exploited, became “bad” because of it, which made it okay to abuse her some more. Doesn’t surprise me that the femme fatale realized beauty was a weapon and struck back.

      1. Cindy, I dont believe beauty was the primary weapon in the femme fatale’s arsenal. blackmail was much more common. consider Ann Savage from 1945’s “Detour.” She wasnt at all what one would call pretty, but she sure had the goods on Tom Neal!

        1. Hhmm. Interesting! I hadn’t thought of that before. Certainly backing men into a corner forcing them to comply is a component. There are too many classic noir films I have not seen. I was going to watch Fritz Lang’s ‘The Big Heat’ (1953) starring Glenn Ford tonight. I’ll keep your comment in mind as I continue watching more of them.

  2. Fascinating article. I really think you nailed it. Mine is probably Stanywck in Double Indemnity. I know she did other films, but that’s always the one I think of first. I especially like your final paragraph.They are about and more powerful than ever.

  3. I absolutely love this post and all the women cited.

    My candidate would be Catherine Deneuve from 1983’s The Hunger. She’s beautiful, seductive, and really is going to kill you so she can keep living. And God forbid if she takes you for a mate as eventually your fate is rapidly aging in a coffin in her attic without the possibility of dying.

    She is the perfect evolutionary predator who is indistinguishable from her prey. Miriam Blaylock even precedes Delilah in illustrating that – as long as women have been underdogs – there have been femme fatales doing the same thing is oh so many frighteningly different ways.

    That’s my two cents and I can’t wait to read more! 😀

    1. Tim, thanks for your two cents. Your 1983 The Hunger selection is a great choice for the emasculator category. “Evolutionary Preditor” is a great way to describe the vampire, Miriam. Wow. I need to rewatch it. Poor David Bowie.

      1. Thanks. Love The Hunger; a real shame the studio made Tony Scott deviate from the novel’s ending (far more satisfying).

    1. A great classic. Her hot exchanges with William Hurt pushed the envelope back in 1981. Kathleen Turner is another sultry actress — even as Jessica Rabbit, it was a fun throwback to the classic noir.

    2. I don’t. In fact, the corniness of the dialog and self-consciousness of the acting embarrassed me. For me, this was the beginning of an unfortunate glut of neo-noirs that completely missed the significance of the noir narrative to post war PTSD and saw nothing but adolescent sex fantasies there

  4. Great post, and a fascinating question. I agree that vulnerability and dependency on a man has generally gone (maybe due to liberalisation’ of women, equal rights to do things, plus women’s image as ‘the one wearing pants’ being more acceptable). But there are still some nstances today of femme fatales being very feminine and dependable and past femme fatales being fighty and very mean – Ellen Berent (Gene Tierney) in ‘Leave her to Heaven’ (1945) – a true villain.

    1. DB, thanks for your input. You mention today’s nuances of the femme fatale minus the Kick-Ass factor. Please tell me which ones! I swear I cannot think of any. Your classic choice is outstanding!

  5. Fascinating article, with plenty of femme fatales I’ve yet to see, and some I’d completely forgotten about. Black Widow is an interesting one, because as the late Roger Ebert noted it teases a cynical, and truly diabolical course – something inspired by the soul of film noir. For a moment there’s the possibility that Debra Winger could fall completely under the spell of Theresa Russell’s black widow and stand by and allow murder, so the two women can live happily ever after.
    It’s been a long time since I’ve watched Black Widow, Body Heat or The Last Seduction so I’ll have to plump for Elvira Hancock as my favourite modern femme fatale. “Michelle Pfeiffer made a career by playing sizzling-and-confused to perfection” and here she represented the unobtainable. As the boss’ wife, she is the angelic symbol of Tony Montana’s aspirations. To him she’s the embodiment of success and achievement, and he believes that he can and must posses her. Her presence in the narrative drives him to increasingly absurd lengths, launching him on his final fatal trajectory.

    1. Paul, I’m sooo glad you mentioned Scarface. Michelle P. was awesome in the role. I can still see her blue dress. her symbolic vision of Tony’s aspirations is spot on. She’s a trophy wife with a mind of her own. Excellent!

  6. Great stuff from both you, and Bill, as always.
    She doesn’t get a mention that often these days, but I have always been beguiled by the wonder of Louise Brooks, especially in ‘Pandora’s Box.’ She may not have been a great actress, (harder to judge in silent films, I always thought) but I could understand how she drove men crazy, and I could look at her on screen all day. As well as having a lot of time for Linda Fiorentino’s performance in ‘The Last Seduction’, I would have to hand the modern prize to Meg Tilly, in ‘Bound.’ Her portrayal of Violet is so sexy, I can forgive that film anything.
    Best wishes to you both. Pete.

    1. I watched The Last Seduction the other day–I only knew her from ‘Dogma’. There’s something about her monotone voice that drives me nuts, but that’s me. She sure was a one-sided vixen. I just kept wanting to slap her play-toy, Mike Swale. What a boob. Love your classic choices, Pete.

      1. I know what you mean. She’s not great, and it’s far from being a great film. But the script is sassy, and she is definitely a femme fatale character.
        Glad you like the others, Louise Brooks is one of my idols. The perfect haircut. I should have lived in the 1920s!

    2. Pete, I agree with you on Louise Brooks in terms of her historical position as the queen of the vamps, but I see her as more a victim than perpetrator in Pandora’s Box, and thus chose Theda Bara as my vamp example,although my favorite remains the thoroughly evil Margaret Livingston from “Sunrise.” Alas, she wound up on my cutting room floor,as my prologue on the femme fatale was getting way too long. She is responsible for one of silent film’s most creative uses of the inter-title, when she suggests her lover drown his wife, and the word ‘drowned” dips V-like below the lake’s surface.

      1. It’s true that Theda Bara is a better example, especially in Salome. Brooks is indeed a victim sometimes. In the film I mentioned, she is killed by Jack The Ripper! It is her ability to tantalise men, and drive them to distraction I was thinking of, though I agree that wasn’t the point of this article. I just always think about her, and that film in particular. Both haunt me!
        A most enjoyable read, and I hope that all is well in Lima.
        Best wishes, Pete.

  7. Well done, Cindy. I’m really glad you features an image of Xiao Mei of House of Flying Daggers. This is one of my favorite films and a powerful role for a woman with some very surprising attributes. I really loved how that character developed from the entertainer to the master fighter. Her allure and charms are so captivating, sensual and so mysterious, it’s no wonder the men lust and desire for her physically and emotionally. I love how she plays it blind, which adds such a tremendous dynamic to the character, as if she is not distracted or swayed by the standards other judge her. Ziyi Zhang is so good in the role and while it’s similar to her work in Crouching Tiger Hidden Dragon, I think it’s even better. Great post, Fun topic.

    1. David, I’m glad we are in agreement with Xiao and House of Flying Daggers as well as Crouching Tiger. I love the Chinese fable and the magical realism. Such beautiful films and Xiao is captivating. I love her talents. As well as Michelle Yeoh. Poetry in motion!

  8. Cindy, I loved Linda Hamilton in the Terminator, but when she beefed up for the sequel, she was just another idiotic action hero, no more interesting for being female. As an asskicker, Sigourney Weaver’s Ripley was more to my taste.But i wouldnt call either a femme fatale. The true ass kicking femme fatale of the 21st century is Noomi Rapace as the Girl With the Dragon Tattoo. The key for the kick ass femme fatale is that she be motivated by revenge. I have loved female revenge genre since Lipstick and Ms 45…..

    1. Yes, Sigourney Weaver was better than Linda, but I loved Hamilton in T2 as a character who had dramatically altered from the first Terminator. I’ll never forget the scene when she clings to the fence and the atomic blow-out blasts through. She had a huge load on her shoulders. I liked watching her deal with it. Reconsidering, she was too far removed to be a femme fatale, So was Ridley. That is, they had a job to do and that was their focus. Nothing to do with male and trying to manipulate anyone. Agreed. But their roles stimulated a change in how we look at the sexy female. My ultimate observation is that I don’t think the femme fatale is around much these days because we’ve skirted to viewing women not as damaged goods and their sexuality is a way to rise above their condition, What we see in films these days is the ultra-strong woman.

      1. what i see in movies these days is a lot of brats competing with each other for meaningless accolades. Ultra-strong women? Greta Gerwig, are you listening? I agree with you that the femme fatale is not a part of the US culture as it was in the 40′ s and 50’s, and that women are no different from men when they play action figures. One thing i really disagree on is the notion of sexuality in film…for me sexuality cannot exist in 2 dimensional representational art. Sex isnt even a primarily visual activity. Beauty is the surface of film; not sex. And beauty has little to do with sex, and there is … sex in film. Sex is an activity between flesh and blood individuals in real time and specific place. Romance is the undercurrent of film.Empathy is the heart of film, the blood of film. Sex is so far from what movies are about, except of course the moronic adolescent comedies that are all essetiallya search for the cure for masturbation. I agree with Godard’s famous line of dialog in masculine/Feminine” “We went to the movies but we never saw the movie we wanted to see,the one we secretly wanted to live” I dont like being accosted by silly women at the seashore who tell me their body temperature is always a couple of degrees above normal. Thats not the movie I secretly want to live. And I agree with Sam fuller that “film is a battleground. Love, hate, violence, action, death…In a word, emotion.”

        1. Bill, missed this. You are a man who lives in the wrong decade. I’ve often thought I fit more in the 20s than today. 😉 Anyway, I agree with your Sam Fuller quote and your opinion on sex and romance and empathy. All I know is I like to watch worlds where there are complicated characters trying to survive in their setting. I like universal themes and I like watching noble characters rising above the evil.

          1. Cindy, these are also the things I look for in movies. I believe I lived in the right decades, but am now living in some science fiction future where my kind is obsolete. i come from time when women had their place: emily dickinson as the greatest american poet, susan sontag as one of the country’s sharpest intellectuals, and julia childs as the world’s greatest french chef. from the 60’s, when pauline kael reinvented film criticism and into the 90’s, when camile paglia reinvented literary criticism. i have had the thrill of being in the same room as some the greatest female singers as they sang their hearts out, among them leonyne price, sarah vaughan, odetta, nina simone, linda, thompson, and loretta lynn. and cant even count the unforgettable screen performances of all those 20th century actresses from all over the world. no, i am not living in the wrong decade…just the wrong century.

  9. Very interesting read Cindy and Bill. I wasn’t really aware of the roots of the femme fatale, and really hadn’t made the link between the more action-oriented leading roles of today, so that was both educational and food for thought.
    I watched Double Indemnity in preparation, and it was the first time I’d seen the film; so much of Stanwyck’s performance, and character traits, are present in the more recent femme fatales from neo-noirs that I can think of (particularly Linda Fioerentino’s character in The Last Seduction – which is one of my all time favourites – and Lara Flynn Boyle in Red Rock West, another John Dahl film). The sunglasses, the vampishness, the way she goes straight into a seduction and has Fred MacMurray’s Neff twisted round her finger within mere minutes, all the way to the repeated betrayals (of her husband, of Neff, of her daughter) and tragedy-laced comeuppance. But I’m now keen to see some of the earlier versions of the archetype that are mentioned.

    1. Stu, thank you for your commentary! There feels like three waves–the great archetype you’ve watched for this discussion; a neo-noir wave, and one we are in now which, to me, seems to have foregone roots of blackmail and covert manipulation and she has become overt and less seductive. I have not seen Red Rock West, so I will check that out!

      1. Cindy. Let’s not forget the first wave, which began with the silent-era vamps and continued with the flappers of the roaring twenties and into the pre-code films of the early thirties, in which stanwyck’s persona was established.

        1. Bill, oops, yes, that’s true. This will sound problematic, but I enjoy noirs and the femme fatale. I don’t see any being made today. (Maybe in foreign markets)
          Thinking of literature and film throughout time portraying women as either angels or seductresses, I’m glad today’s female is portrayed by strong characters, if not downright fearless. There’s ‘Suffragette’out in theaters, for example.
          Wielding power via beauty/passion to manipulate men as a means to an end is just as wrong as when a man does it. But gosh, she’s fun to watch. More fun than watching a woman wield a gun as her weapon.

      2. No problem! I recommend Red Rock West…it doesn’t reinvent the wheel but it’s a solid neo-noir and there’s fun to be had watching another psychotic performance by Dennis Hopper.

        1. 🙂 So, Stu. Can I count on you for December’s topic, a focus on Ang Lee? All you would have to do is consider an aspect of his directing and tie it to a film (I think you mentioned Brokeback Mt.). You don’t have to do a long review or article about him–a conversation starter is fine.

  10. There was Brian DePalma’s 2012 “Passion,” with Noomi Rapace and Rachel McAdams. Apparently, a weak female character has replaced the male victim in the femme fatale scenario. Perhaps Pete, who liked Bound so much, can elaborate on this.

  11. Hi, Cindy:

    Excellent critique! Well thought out, delivered and defended.

    High marks and kudos for using a famed silhouette frame from the criminally unknown, ‘The Big Combo’ to encapsulate your work.

    Marie Windsor’s, Sherry Petty is a classic Femme Fatale. Cold. Manipulative. Merciless in applying pressure to her milquetoast husband, George (Perpetual Sap, Elisha Cook, Jr. in Stanley Kubrick’s ‘The Killing’. Right up there with Ann Savage’s Vera in ‘Detour’. Evenly slip between Anjelica Huston’s Lilly Dillon and Annette Benning’s Myra Langtry as they fight over the soul of Lilly’s son, Roy (John Cusack) in Stephen Frears’ early work ‘The Grifters’.

    Though, none of them hold a candle to Linda Fiorentino’s Wendy Kroy in ‘The Last Seduction’! Whose seductive iciness is made whole by the late, great J.T. Walsh asking, “Anyone check you for a heartbeat recently?”

    Femme Fatale as an Action or Super Hero seems a bit of a stretch. Though, in the fighting to survive and get away with the money. Few can beat the final reels of Jane Greer’s Kathie in ‘Out of The Past’. Ava Gardner’s Kitty in ‘The Killers’. Or Peggy Cummings’ Annie Starr in ‘Gun Crazy’.

  12. Hi Cindy, sorry I didn’t get a chance to visit this weekend. Frankly I couldn’t even get near a computer (let alone a blog) as my heart’s heavy about those violence in Paris.

    In any case, I LOVE this post, insightful as always AND entertaining. I don’t know who my all time fave femme fatales are, does Scarlett O’Hara count? I also love Barbara Stanwyck in Double Indemnity, who’s effortlessly seductive. Of the recent movies, I LOVE Rebecca Ferguson in MI5, Charlize Theron in Mad Max Fury Road and Emily Blunt in Edge of Tomorrow!

    1. Ruth, yes, very sad with the Paris attack. Keeping up with one’s blog is irrelevant in comparison. Thanks for commenting, nonetheless, as your thoughts are the cheery addition I enjoy. Hmmm. Scarlett. Yes, I should think so. She manipulated the people around her to achieve her goals and her beauty was the trump card. Usually you think of noirs –the mysterious woman brings bad results to the male, duping him — those crime mysteries — although Bill pointed out in the silent era, vampires and Berlin showgirls began the movement. Then came the era of Double Indemnity. Then the neo-noir, like Chinatown and L.A. Confidential, and the present, a void of that manipulator, evolved into an independent creature who doesn’t need a man. Just a theory. However, Jordan, brought up ‘Under the Skin’ which brings us an alien predator who consumes men.

      1. I haven’t seen Under the Skin yet but does that count that she’s not human though? Btw, I just thought of someone, Nicole Kidman in To Die For is a manipulative b*tch who uses men to her advantage.

        1. Good point about the alien, Ruth. I think since vampires count, so should aliens, but that’s me. 😉 Yay, you are right, Ruth, about Kidman. I can think of a few roles Nicole has played over the years where she is that conniving manipulator. Thanks!

  13. Absolutely fabulous post here, Cindy! It is Noirvember I hear, after all? 😉

    The femme fatale is always one of the storytelling pleasures. But whenever I think of one, the first that springs to mind is Linda Fiorentino in John Dahl’s hugely underrated The Last Seduction.

    1. Hi Mark! Glad you stopped by. The Last Seduction seems to evoke a love/hate reaction. As a femme fatale, she is the classic type–cold, merciless, emasculator. Other than ‘Dogma’, that role seemed to be Linda’s one-hit-wonder.

    1. Hi Brenda! Basic Instinct wasn’t a great film, but that role of Sharon Stone’s wass iconic, wasn’t it? Angelina Jolie has made a career out of playing sensuous deadly ladies, hasn’t she? The Tourist is no exception. Nice inclusion!

  14. As an actress Id rate Sharon Stone at the Kim Novak level. Her modern femme fatale of Basic Instinct was much more provocative than Fiorentino and Turner’s laborious retreads of 1940’s stereotypes.

  15. Look, one of the best femme fatales I’ve ever seen is on the small screen……..Gretchen Mol in Boardwalk Empire! Okay, It’s TV……..but it’s one of the greatest TV series ever made!……….This is the most gorgeous, delicate, evil woman I have ever seen in a moving picture! Legendary stuff here, if you didn’t see what she does, you would never believe it!
    Gretchen Mol is God(dess)!

    1. Ronald, welcome and thanks for your input. Yeah, we were talking about films, but if it extended to television, I hear she’s something else! I’ll take your word for it–it’s a series I have meant to rent over the years but haven’t. When I do, I’ll remember your adoration for her 😉

  16. I like your choice of Ingrid Bergman in “Notorious.” I never really viewed the film in that light, but Alicia Huberman was certainly a femme fatal. She baited Alexander Sebastian and brought about his ruin. It is all the more interesting that we are sympathetic to her throughout the film. It has always been my favorite Bergman film (along with “Autumn Sonata”). I also enjoy Kim Novak in “Vertigo.” However, I feel the need to choose a non-Hitchcock character. Gloria Swanson’s Norma Desmond in “Sunset Boulevard” is a nice change from the regular femme fatal formula, and it is an excellent film, so that would be my choice.

    I am not particularly fond of the 1980s and 1990s femme fatal resurgence. I haven’t analyzed my reasons, but I feel that many of those films (such as “Basic Instinct”) were improperly handled.

I ♥ comments.

Fill in your details below or click an icon to log in: Logo

You are commenting using your account. Log Out /  Change )

Google photo

You are commenting using your Google account. Log Out /  Change )

Twitter picture

You are commenting using your Twitter account. Log Out /  Change )

Facebook photo

You are commenting using your Facebook account. Log Out /  Change )

Connecting to %s

Blog at

Up ↑

%d bloggers like this: