In the Heart of the Sea

Owen Chase (Chris Hemsworth) Man vs. Nature

NATHANIEL PHILBRICK  specializes in U.S. maritime history and combines his engrossing story-telling sensibilities with fine research. In 2000, his nonfiction National Book Award Winner, In the Heart of the Sea, inspired the 2010 PBS documentary Into the Deep directed by Ric Burns and narrated by Willem Dafoe. Next came the recent 2015 Ron Howard film, In the Heart of the Sea, starring Chris Hemsworth, Brendan Gleeson, Tom Holland, and Cillian Murphy. Of course, Herman Melville wrote the classic Man vs. Nature classic, Moby Dick, in 1851 about Captain Ahab’s obsession for revenge against the mighty Sperm whale. All four versions of the sinking of the whaleship Essex combine the history of Nantucket and the Romanticism between the sailor and the sea and his ship. All versions are worthy ways of spending your time and will enhance your knowledge of Colonial America.

The History 

The 50 by 30 mile stretch of land off Cape Cod became the heart of the whaling industry from approximately 1620-1865. Until the advent of kerosene, the highest quality oil used to make wax candles and light lanterns were from the rendered oil of whales. Dug out from the bulbous head of the Sperm whale, the Spermaceti oil could fill 34 barrels and was most valuable. At first, the Wampanoag and Nantucketers stripped and boiled the blubber from the drift whales which had been stranded on shore. Over the years, sailors ventured further off the coast to deeper waters and discovered pools of Sperm whales. It evolved into a two hundred year industry and sailors became more than hunters. The ships became floating factories for processing and storing the oil. They became merchants and explorers, too. For one to five years, sailors set off on voyages in search of whales to fill the empty barrels lying on the belly of their ships. From Nantucket, the Westerlies pushed them toward South America. They rounded Cape Horn and floated up the coast of Chile to the Galapagos Islands and kicked out into the expansive Pacific Ocean in search of the migratory pools of Sperm whales. According to scholars on the PBS documentary, Into the Sea, “By 1775, 360 whaling boats went out to hunt the whale; 15 came from Nantucket. Fifty percent of the profit of exports in New England came from the whaling industry.” I don’t think it can be stressed enough how important the whaling industry solidified the economic success of the burgeoning northern colonies. Consider that the South had cash crops (tobacco, rice, indigo, cotton) while the North had whales. It is interesting to consider that both regional ends vanquished mammals for their economic success – whales in the north and slave labor in the south. 

New Bedford Whaling Museum, Harpooning the Whale

The Romance

The culture of a sailor and his life onboard a ship was a mixture of extremes. Boredom, while waiting to spot the whale. Then,  “Thar she blows!” followed by the rambunctious attack with harpoons aimed for the lungs, the pull and the stabbing, the gross “flurry” as the whale drowns in her own blood, the shout from the crew, “Chimney’s afire!” and then the three-day processing of peeling off the blubber, melting of blubber, the furnaces stoked and the smells and the slime of oil glistening the faces of the sailors as if they labored in the pits of Hell. Ghastly.

Remember to factor in the religious temperament of the 17th and 18th-century colonist whose explanation of the workings of the world were inextricable with the Bible and Divine Providence. That is, the sailor, the captain, and her ship were “vessels of exoticism, traveling around the globe in the pursuit of conquering the Leviathan, a sea monster from the Old Testament.” The whale was considered evil; man’s conquering was a noble feat. Surviving a voyage was an adventure for the crew and the officers; it defined manhood. The beauty and wildness of nature attracted the sailor. The horizon blended water and sky into a location of unearthliness. There was no time or place. Out in the Pacific Ocean–it must feel to what astronauts feel out in space–one is a speck, surrounded by infinity, overwhelmed with fear and awesomeness.

The Film 

After watching the film five times, I am in admiration of Ron Howard. He followed Nathanial Philbrick’s book with the attention to detail that mirrored the historical climate from the book. The true voyage of 1820 combined an unnatural pairing of the first mate, Owen Chase, (Chris Hemsworth) the “fishy” second-in-command whose natural instincts and assertiveness commanded the respect of the crew, while Captain Pollard (Benjamin Walker) was more a “social” leader, seeking suggestions, and thereby perceived too passive.

Where Ron Howard might have lost a few critics and fans for lulls in the action was the overarching narration of the telling of the story from the perspective of an older Thomas Nickerson (Brendan Gleeson) who was a cabin boy during the sinking of the Essex and the 90 days lost out at sea. Fighting the shame and guilt of sins committed staying alive, Nickerson is paid by a young Herman Melville (Ben Whishaw) to share the survival story and strange actions of the angry 85-foot Sperm whale, Moby Dick, who “stove” the Essex.

By including this line of narration, Howard blends the history of the story with the American Romantic classic, Moby Dick. Philbrick’s book centers on the recently discovered diary from the 1990s of the cabin-boy, Nickerson, to add a fresh twist to the long staple, Owen Chase’s account of the disaster, written months after the 1820 disaster. Howard respects this and gives life to the orphan boy who found himself at 13 on the voyage of a lifetime.

Ron Howard is criticized for his sappy interjections in an otherwise interesting plot. It’s his Achilles Heel. In this case, while devoting his film to a logical, realistic account, he incorporates the Man vs. Nature elements of the novel Moby Dick by bestowing anthropomorphic qualities to the whale. It’s the climax of the film, so I can’t specifically say, but it is the flaw of the film for me that brings my rating down a notch. I will hint at it: when man and beast come eye to eye, they come to an understanding.

In Nathaniel Philbrick‘s account, the whale struck the ship and was never seen again. The film version embellishes the history by embracing Melville’s book. Those that love Herman Melville and the personifications found in the literature would not have issues with the personification of the whale in the film. If you want a realistic account of events, the climax might feel far-fetched. Does it work? You tell me.  4/5.

American Experience: Into the Deep: America, Whaling & the World DVD 

Parker, Hershel, and Harrison Hayford (eds). (2001). Herman Melville, Moby-Dick. A Norton

     Critical Edition. Second Edition, New York and London: W.W. Norton & Company.

     ISBN 9780393972832

Philbrick, Nathaniel. In the Heart of the Sea: The Tragedy of the Whaleship Essex., 2001. Print. 

ISBN-10: 0141001828  ISBN-13: 9780141001821

26 thoughts on “In the Heart of the Sea

Add yours

  1. Orca and Humpbak whales will come close and look at you if they are not afraid or, perhaps, if they are simply curious. It is an awesome feeling to look into their big eyes.

  2. As a child, I devoured the book Moby Dick. The unfamiliar experience of hunting whales at sea, and the characters living that hard life on board ship. I later watched any adaptation I could find, enjoying them also. However, nothing matched the power of my imagination, reading Melville’s book.
    Despite the legends and stories of sailors, I somehow doubt that a Sperm Whale ever intentionally attacked or destroyed a ship, or small boat. More likely they were in pain, and just trying to escape.

    Nice review, Cindy, and I enjoyed the history too.

    Good luck with that extra writing, and see you soon.

    Best wishes, Pete. x

    1. Hi Pete. According to the scholarly book, it is not inconceivable for a whale (especially Orcas) to smack a ship, just unlikely. I wonder if you would like the film. It feels like a cross between castaway and Jaws. But really, I bet you would appreciate a lot of it. I remember grumpy Bill was even impressed with the cinematography and the overall composition. Anyway, you should give it a try since you are a Melville fan.

      1. Is Bill still around? I haven’t heard a peep from him since I read his short story on a link he sent. I will watch the film, as 4/5 from you is recommendation enough.
        Best wishes as always, Pete.

          1. You might not like the ending, but the visuals are stunning and Gleeson is always good. It was downright disturbing to see Chris Hemsworth so “ugly” as he starved on his boat, lost at sea.

  3. A pretty good movie.
    Must have been a difficult shoot. Us humans are in foreign and hostile territory at Sea. The deep. That has taken many lives.
    So …the White Whale. Never was your normal whaling tale, was it? Moby Dick is full of religious and spiritual symbolism – such issues and questions are brought forth. Howard has been dancing on the edge of it in a lot of his movies. In the past he seemed to want to rationalize Religion and Spirituality away – to scientific origin. BUT he never leaves the subject alone – which suggests to me that his own rationalizations don’t add up in his own mind.
    So … here comes to Moby Dick. We know there’s something down there. Something powerful. Something that’s scary to a lot of us.
    But it’s white. It’s Pure. In it’s heart and intent.
    The question is again left to us. What is it? Does it really exist? Or is it just a fantasy?
    Good questions … that we can only each answer for ourselves.
    A pretty good movie.

    1. A fine insight into Ron! I love it.
      Science and God. In my book, they both coexist with the Maker creating a scientific universe. The movies and books are great for raising issues for us to consider.
      Yes, a pretty good movie. 🙂

  4. By the way, I read Melville’s “Billy Bud” and saw the film in high school. The book was required reading–and for me it was sheer torture. I wasn’t old enough or mature enough to appreciate the book and it’s religious symbolism. 🙂

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