L13FC: Play into Film

 

It’s Friday the 13th. You all are my lucky charms. Welcome back to this month’s rendition of the Lucky 13 Film Club. I have been thinking about plays which were adapted to film. Ever wonder why what works on the stage somehow gets lost in translation on the screen? Why do some films feel like a play but never were? Whether a satire or silly or serious, a successful adaptation from the stage to the screen is not easy. Why? Let us focus our discussion on plays and NOT MUSICALS.

Thinking beyond a list of favorites, who are your favorite characters? Often I am so-so about the film adaptation as a whole, but an actor’s delivery or a line by the author has been tattooed on my heart. What are some of your lasting impressions?

Cindy’s choices:

When Rev. Hale tries to atone for the death warrants he has assigned in Arthur Miller’s The Cruciblehe begs Elizabeth Proctor to persuade her husband John to confess to witchcraft in order to save his life.

John Proctor (DDL), Joan Allen as Elizabeth Proctor

For the principle of honesty, she answers, “I believe that be the Devil’s argument.”  I see and hear actress Joan Allen say this on the Cape Cod shore in the 1996 film version. When situations arise in my life where I hear people bend and rationalize the truth including interior dialogues with myself–should I or not? I hear Goody Proctor’s voice.

The Night of the Iguana by Tennessee Williams is an enjoyable 1964 film in all regards. Richard Burton gives an energetic performance especially when he’s sweating it out wrapped up and trapped in the hammock.

Deborah Kerr with Richard Burton in The Night of the Iguana (1964)

T. Lawrence Shannon: I thought you were sexless. But you’ve just become a woman. And do you know how I know that? Because you like me tied up! All women, whether they wish to admit or not, would like to get men into a tied-up situation.

Is there truth in his statement? Hmmm. The gender relations in the 1960s. The dynamic between a mother and son. A husband and wife. The femme fatale and her victim. What intrigues me about the comment is that Hannah Jelkes (Deborah Kerr) is “good” and “cerebral” thus lacking the qualities that make her female. To be sexless also means she lacks the qualities that make her male. How interesting to be neither sex. She abstains from the hypocrisies and degradation of both sexes and becomes the Buddha in the film whether she likes it or not.

David Mamut‘s play/film Glengarry Glen Ross (1992) scorched with an excellent script and meaty acting from the entire cast.  Alec Baldwin played the worst boss imaginable and typecasts himself for twenty more films in his future. Anyway, Shelley Levene (Jack Lemmon) was exceptional. The scene that stuck was the one where he was battered and worn by his colleagues and Blake, and then, with a snap of a finger, he got on that phone to made a sale like his life depended on it. His demeanor changed from weak to aggressive remarkably. I was wowed by Lemmon’s performance and truly felt horrible for Shelley and his outcome. Here’s more on Jack Lemmon found HERE.

Al Pacino as Shylock in Shakespeare’s The Merchant of Venice (2004) made me smile. It is my second favorite play by Shakespeare and the film version directed by Michael Radford was entertaining and visually interesting due in part to the cast: Jeremy Irons, Joseph Fiennes, and Lynn Collins. The Act III, scene I monologue by Shylock rouses indignation, and I see Shylock in a whole new light.

A Streetcar Named Desire by Tennessee Williams, 1947, starring Marlon Brando and Scarlett O’Hara as Blanche

My ultimate favorite line is Blanch DuBois when she pitifully says, “I’ve always depended on the kindness of strangers.” Poor Blanche. When her beauty faded, so did her options. Loss of hope and desperation makes for desperate decisions. Haven’t we all been there at some point in our lives? Is Williams suggesting there’s a bit of Blanche in all women? Trying to exist with the cards stacked against us, encouraged by men to use whatever charms for their enjoyment while simultaneously condemned for using them? Smarts and ingenuity were not readily accepted by society prior to roughly 1980.  We’ve come a long way, baby. Right?

Plays bring up issues that are fun to think about and discuss. I’ll list some plays to jar your memory. What character or line sticks with you?

Raisin in the Sun, Amadeus, Barefoot in the Park, Cat on a Hot Tin Roof, Arsenic and Old Lace, Doubt, Closer, Long Day’s Journey into the Night, Who’s Afraid of Virginia Woolf?, August: Osage County, Fences, Driving Miss Daisy, One Flew Over the Cuckoo’s Nest, Dial M for Murder, On Golden Pond, The Lion in Winter, and countless Oscar Wilde & Shakespeare adaptations…

86 thoughts on “L13FC: Play into Film

Add yours

  1. The first film adaptation of a play that always springs to my mind is ‘An Inspector Calls’. (1954). This transferred well to film, allowing for flashbacks describing how everyone became involved in the life of the tragic young girl who has taken her life. Alastair Sim was perfect as the Inspector who represents their consciences, but never actually existed. Or did he?
    And I have to mention ‘Alfie’ (1966) again, with Caine taking the stage play to a new level with his outstanding performance.
    My favourite filmed Shakespeare is still Olivier’s ‘Henry V’ (1944), which managed to turn from historical recreation to epic, scene by scene.
    Best wishes, Pete. x

    1. Tell me about Caine in ‘Alfie’ since I think of him as your alter-ego (Caine not Alfie (?)) due to your accent and your love for him in your posts.
      What’s the line or scene that makes you think Caine did an outstanding job?
      Branagh’s Henry V was good for me. I ought to revisit the Olivier performance.
      I hope someone mentions Hamlet.

      Who did him best? While I would have paid a lot to see Cumberbatch, Daniel Day-Lewis, Ian Kellen or Ralph Fiennes play the quintessential role on stage, for film, I was surprised at Mel Gibson’s performance and impressed with Branagh’s.
      Anyway, I’m glad you mentioned Henry V.

      1. Caine talked to the camera, making me feel as if he was just talking to me, and I was standing next to him. He has some good lines, but the throwaway stuff like these quotes are what stuck with me.
        “My understanding of women only goes as far as the pleasure. When it comes to the pain I’m like any other bloke – I don’t want to know.”
        “She’s got a little ginger moustache. But I find I’m quite willing to overlook the odd blemish in a woman, providing she’s got something to make up for it. Well, that’s what we’re all here for, innit – to help each other out in this life.”
        🙂 x

        1. Alfie, the Michael Caine version, of course, is stellar. It was Caine’s breakout performance–some might say that it was The Ipcress File. It’s scary to contemplate that there are so many guys out there like Alfie. Scarier still that there are so many guys–these days, especially–that are like Alfie but more covert. God forbid we think we are getting an enlightened partner and under the charm, the degree and good table manners, ta dah!…It’s Alfie!

          1. Yes indeed. That behavior always turned me off. I’ve always been sensitive to it, but that doesn’t mean I don’t have a sensitivity towards these scoundrels or even an attraction to their rogue charm.

      2. was unimpressed by all the hamlets you mentioned although gibson gave the character a worthy physicality, especially in the flute scene with R ad G, the adaptation, however, was one of the worst. my favorite hamlets are burton and jacobi, althou i wish i could get a copy of nicol williamsons, since i had problems with it when it was released 50 years ago and would like to reasses it. ad also to see marianne faithful,

        1. As I mentioned at the beginning of the post, the version of the adaptation as a whole could be lame, but there might have been a particular performance, or in general, a comment about the favorite line of the author I wanted to open up for discussion.

  2. Yes I hear you. Same with books. I often hear people say “the Book was better”.
    I think perhaps musicals fare the best? Camelot? The Music Man? there are many. Yet as you say…
    Perhaps it’s the intimacy of Theatre? And the accent on dialogue and character – without distraction?
    I really don’t know it sometimes doesn’t. You’d think it would be superior. After all you can get that camera right up in their faces – and elsewhere. And reshoot things till their perfect … ?

    1. Last play I watched was ‘Fences’ which won many awards for the stage and Viola Davis won an Oscar (deservingly so!). Yet, many filmgoers didn’t like the claustrophobic and long monologues. I don’t have an answer for you. I thought it was excellent–especially Viola–the scene where she stands up to her cheating husband and decides to keep their baby–OMG–I bawled.

      1. i saw fences when in an out of town run preview prior to its broadway opening and i loved it. the movie was an excellent adaptation and it is criminal that it was overlooked. first time i have ever liked a performance from Viola Davis,

    2. when you see a lot of the classic broadway plays in touring revivals these days, they seem cheap and superfiial compared t the movie versions. but i would hve loved to see camelot and west side story o broadway in their first productions.

    1. Well, there you go! The backflip Jane made on the dock. I didn’t like her character or Jane Fonda much even though I knew in real life Jane and Henry were estranged and had a difficult father-daughter relationship.
      What I remember is Ethel Thayer really loved Norman. When she says, “Listen, Mister. You are my Knight in Shining Armor!” I always tear up. Hepburn was perfect in the role. It’s a film whose adaptation really works on the screen because of the incorporation of the setting. I have many times pined for a house on the lake like the one on Golden Pond.

  3. I love A Streetcar Named Desire. The play and the movie. Blanche DuBois is considered the plum role for any actress in theatre. And of course Vivian Leigh was spectacular in the movie. She owned it. That said, I think Kim Hunter was equally good, in a harder, less showy role. Elia Kazan is one of the few film directors that could really bring a Tennessee Williams play to life on screen. Of course, Tennessee Williams co-wrote the script so that helped.

    1. In complete agreement, Pam. Blanchett did a remarkable job on stage and the Woody Allen ‘Blue Jasmine’ is a newer loose adaptation I like.
      Kazan is one of my favorite directors–of course, having Marlon Brando as your actor couldn’t hurt, eh?
      SO, what’s your favorite scene in Streetcar? Which scene immediately pops into your mind when you think about the play to film?

      1. Well, it’s been a long time sense I’ve seen the film or read the play, but here’s my recollection (as flawed as it may be): The scene where Blanche realizes that Stella has betrayed her–that Stella and Stanley are sending her away. Oh, my gosh, it’s heart wrenching.

        1. And yes, Marlon Brando is a huge asset. So sexy and so rogue, but not in a “relatively harmless” way like Alfie is. No. Stanley is diabolical. Dangerous. Callous and mean. Yet, I am drawn to him. I’m not proud of it, but it is what it is. Unlike Stella, I wouldn’t marry him. So tragic that Blanche, “the crazy one”, actually sees Stanley for who he is. And Stanley can see through Blanche too. Stella is willfully blind. She sees what she wants to see.

          1. What woman in her right mind wouldn’t be attracted to him? Goodness, he’s perfection.
            But yeah, what woman in her right mind would marry him? Only Stella, as you say. The love the dynamic between Stanley and Blanche. And poor Mitch! Karl Malden was interesting to watch.

  4. What do you think about Sam Sheppard Cindy? Did you know that in addition to him being a terrific actor, he was also a great playwright? In fact that’s where he got the initial “show biz” attention. His play Buried Child is a literary work of art. It would make a great film adaption if someone had the gumption to take it on. Very bleak subject manner.
    But back to your list…Who’s Afraid of Virginia Woolf is an amazing play to screen adaption. Talk about a toxic relationship. Whew!

    1. Big breath. There is a lot to say. Sam Shepard. I didn’t know he was a playwright. I really enjoyed his role in August: Osage County. There’s a line he says before he departs for the last time in the boat on the lake. “LIfe is very long.” I love that T.S. Eliot line.

      Virginia Woolf. Another utterly depressing film which showcases reality way too close for comfort. What are your favorite scenes?

      1. I’m a huge Sam Sheppard fan. So sad that he passed away. He elevated everything he was in. Even the Right Stuff. It’s a better film because he was in it.
        I admire you Cindy. You have a terrific mind. You approach film more analytically than I do. I see film more as a whole concept. That’s the way I remember it. Especially with films that are more in my wheelhouse. Dialogue, character driven films. So it’s been awhile since I saw Virginia Woolf. I remember it more thematically. The destruction of the id. The push pull of the two main characters and their dogged determination to destroy the happiness of the young couple, to dismantle them. It is chilling.

      2. come on cindy, i dont believe you didnt know sam shepard was a playwrite. he was the number one playwrite of the 80s and helped revive interest in the serious drama, an interest that didnt last long, he always acted, though, i first saw him in the 70s with patti smith in a play he wrote about janis joplin and kris kristofferson, shepard played kris. when his last major play a lie of the mind was staged in cambridge MA, i saw a lot of him and his wife Jessica Lange in the neighborhood, at the time i was managing a repertory movie theatre that offered a different double feature every day, and they were frequent customers, what glamour they brought into the shadows cast by the harvard yard,

          1. we had ots of celebrity patrons. one of our projectonists used to have beers at the saloon ext door whenever john savage came by. and charles durning always looked so funny as he sat in the back row waiting for the movie to start, hoping nobody would turn aroud and spot him.

          2. i would never dare initiate a conversation with a celebrity, without first having introduced. but i have had some rewarding times with people i did not know to be famous, as Dudley Herschbach, with whome i spent the entire course of a party gabbng with, and we had been talking for an hour before he mentioned he had just returned from sweden where he had accepted the Nobel Prize in Chemistry. Then there was the night when i killed time backstage shooting the shit with Jon Bon Jovi, all the time thinking he was a roadie for the band,

  5. All are great choices. “A Streetcar Named Desire” is, I think, my favourite from the list. I have no problem with older play-to-film adaptations, such as Hitchcock’s “Rope” too, but I find that I am very underwhelmed by some more recent adaptations. I liked neither Polanski’s “Carnage” nor Almereyda’s “Marjorie Prime”. I found that great acting was the only thing that elevated these films. Having said that, I really enjoyed “It’s Only the End of the World” which I reviewed too, but there was Xavier Dolan in the director’s seat and that man would work out of his skin to ensure that his audience feels the emotion and senses a deeper meaning behind everything.

    1. Welcome back, DB. Thank you for your input. Did you like Polanski’s “MacBeth”? So dark, yet beautifully directed. Sorry, I haven’t seen “Carnage”. What about more recent offerings–Did you like ‘Fences’? Viola Davis took my breath away with her authentic performance.
      Do you get a chance to go to plays? I confess it’s been years since I’ve seen a play. I wonder why since the experience is so different and rewarding than sitting on the couch to watch an adaptation. It would be the only reason I’d go to NYC–to go to the theater.

      1. It has been years since I have seen a play too and I agree the experience is rewarding. And, yes, I liked “Fences”. It had some amazing performances, but I think it is still risky to do a successful play-to-film adaptation. You have to have just these jaw-dropping performances or a creative director not afraid to take risks. I love one-setting, one-location films, so such play-films are not a problem for me, but they could be for some other people, I guess.

  6. So many great choices, Cindy. (Too bad the Tennessee Williams’ plays were made into movies, we so strongly identify with the play in an era of strict censorship.) Over the years I was so fortunate to have worked so many of the plays you mentioned. That presents a problem for me because working the plays 20, 30 times makes it hard to really appreciate the movie. Kind of like reading the book before seeing the movie. And the there is the substitution of an actor who starred in the play being replaced by a bigger ‘name’. Brando in STREETCAR,his second movie, is proof that it doesn’t have to be that way.

    1. Hi Don. I am a fan of your history as a permanent fixture behind the curtain in the theater in MN. I have enjoyed reading your stories about the actors and performances over the years. So I can completely understand your first love going to the stage performance. Yes, there is a similarity between the play to film as the book to film. In that, books and plays are intimate experiences whereas films are generic and cold. Each stage performance has a life and energy to it. And running 20 or 30 times–man, you own that! Books require the imagination to create the vision from words. I am reading a book right now that is delicious as words and the time and place is real inside my head. Now, when they adapt the book (Sisters Brothers) into a film this fall, I wonder if it won’t look silly and boring.

  7. short notes on the ttles you mentioned. Hamlet,,the olviier version sufferes from adherence to the faulty freudian interpretation by ernest jones. branaughs made the mistake of thnking that every scene in the folio was inteneded to be icluded in every production, thus leaded to unnessessary alternate sces cotaining the same information. my favorite version os richard burons, although his performance is ll in the voice and he is physically clumsby,i nominate dekek jacobys as the best all around version….. night of the iguana is a superb adaptation of one of williams minor plays, the castning i perfect…..not so with kazans streetcar named desire. vivian leigh is miscast as blanche, but that wasnt nearly as destructive as brandos fatal misunderstanding of stanley. williams was thriled with his performance, even thoug, even thoughit was nothing like the character he wrote, and the wrld has fallen into the problematic acceptance of his interpretation as being the standard, and most actors simply imitate it. i would cast someonline like jeremy irons in the part, a sensitive intelligent but still alpha male.

    1. “…nothing like the character he wrote.” Makes me want to grab the screenplay. Brando managed to create his own character and that all other actors imitate him is paying homage. Same with Vivian. I don’t disagree with you that she was miscast. I wish I could have seen Cate Blanchett’s performance in Australia in the early 2000s or even Gillian Anderson at the National Theater. Next July I’ll be in London, and while I doubt they will still be running, I would like to see Toby Jones in ‘The Birthday Party’ or Jeremy Irons in ‘Long Days Journey Into Night’. Speaking of Jeremy, that you think he’d be a good Stanley made raised my eyebrows. Never would have thought of him in the part.

      1. read the play. forget the screenplay. dont interest me. i also cannot stand the recent interpretations of shakespeare by the RSC, ive seen jeremy rons on stage with get me wrong. i love warching brando as stanley. but its just one interpretatio of the role. kazan was wonderful with actors, but he gave them so much rope that they often hanged the character. dean was fun to watch i east of eden but aron would have been the more suitable character for him to be cast as….but that was not the leadm and so,,,,,,,,,for pinter, we have the movies, and donald pleasance is the face and voice of the playwrite. i dont want to see any new interpretations. pinter wrote with suchh precision that anything he is not personally involced with does not interest me, i saw jeret iros on stage with glenn close and believe me, he would have made a wonderful stanley in the 1980s

  8. one of the worst casting choice of relatively recent times was night mother, i saw kathy bates in the original broadway production, nd you dont cast sissy spacek in a kathy bates character. the play no sense with spacek. i agree with you on glengarry glen ross, imo the best adaptation of a mamet play because mamet was not directing. and the cast was not fominated by mamets acting company. hated merchant of venice, as i ate all productions of this play, becay, because since the holocust it has been impossible to play it with the comedy shakespeare intended. i never ikked millers play the crucible and was not enticed to watch more than an hour of this adaptaion. my favorite play to film is whos afraid of virginia woolf because it is my favorite 20th century american play and mike nichols didnt ruin it. the actng by all four players was excellent.

    1. No, I think The Crucible adaptation was silly. Wynona Rider does nothing for me as an actress. BUT Arthur’s lines are memorable, especially the ones by Allen who did a great job in the adaptation.

      So, my question to you — what are some of your favorite lines/monologues, soliloquies???

      1. i can only begin to answer that…..trigorins long address to nia in the seagull, aarons eil speech in tius andronicus, just about everything in hamlet and virginia woolf. the suides explanation to her nother by wtwo phtographs in night mother, which made no sense in the movie since spacek never filled out as an adult, stankeys eplaatios of the napoleonic code that showed he had studied a little bit of law and was not the primitive brute that brando portayed him as, he was the most intelligent person in an undereducated working class crowd, if anywonne, mitch was the gnorant brute of he final speech of king lear that signifies the end of the wold is of the most chilling passages in shakespeare. and the transcendant conclusion of the tempest the most optimistic hope for humanity. i could go on but ill stop here for now.

        1. Ah, yes, nice call with Stanley’s explanation of Napoleonic Code–gives credence to previous comments about Brando’s interpretation. Somehow that floats by under the bridge compared to his explosive outbursts. Hmmm..
          The Seagull I’m investigating as we speak. I’m reading Chekov’s play and then look forward to watching the adaptation starring Saoirise Ronan for an upcoming post. I’ll
          pay attention to Boris Trigorin’s speech.

          King Lear. V.III
          What do you think of this version? Who did it best?

          1. also note that the poker game was at his house and how his friends regarded him at the bowling alley. definitely the alpha make, not a brooding sexual brute, what we see in the film is not hw williams wrote stanley, but how blanche perceived him,

          2. for the most part, shakespeare is better on the page than the stage. the only version ive liked was directed by Grigori Kozintsev, who also did a decent version of Hamlet. I will tell you what i think after seeing the new version of the seagull, but i have low hopes for it. few people outside of russia have the slightest idea what the scenes are about. well, maybe woody allen does. in any instace, im sure trigorins speech will be drastically cut, read the play, the speech was written as a gift to the actor who origanated the part. very few actors are at a skill level high enough to carry it off.

          3. I meant the play, not the screenplay. I don’t have high hopes, either, but since I have never seen a production of ‘The Seagull’ I feel I should start somewhere.

          4. the only productio of it i have seen live that was any good was the leninsk comsomol, it was in russian, but i now the play by heart so could understand everything.. the movie versions i have seen were all wretchd mireadings, and the americk productions of the play even worse. i acted in two productions nether very good, but at least the directors vision was intelligent but, being rusia and not used to working with american actors, was not successful in getting them to do a proper job. i played trigorin, in one and konstantin in the other. i was not very good either, but i gained a solid undertanding of the play, for the third production, i was assistant director.

          5. that scene was excellent, had me in tears. i have the whole thing in my library but have been reticent about watching it. now it goes to the top of my list, right after the 70s sleazefest, Wild Honey,

    1. Yes, sometimes for sport, sometimes for survival, women play just as many games as men do. Cat and mouse games are not gender specific. The need for control is a strong motivation, don’t you think? What I find interesting is the denial or the ability of manipulators to carry it off because they can pretend they aren’t playing a game. A game within a game.
      Lovely stuff for stories.

      1. Oh yes I totally agree. I think the manipulations men use as opposed to women are different. Sometimes psychological and sometimes physical. I’m talking generally here. There is an attempt on the part of governments in some countries to give women a fairer share of the action but its superficial and men rule in most countries. That needs to be dealt with more energetically and politically. Women have different weapons to deal with men. However in principle I have to agree with you. It is about power and control in both genders.

  9. favorite scene in long days journey into night was when older brother confesses to younger brother that the purpose in exposing him to decadent literature was to destroy him.

    1. What a dark, biting play. I need to revisit the movie version with Hepburn. I watched Oscar Wilde’s ‘Mrs. Windermere’s Fan’ and was surprised that Helen Hunt single-handedly ruined the beautiful adaptation. But I chuckled at Oscar Wilde’s witticisms, so it was a pleasant time.

          1. it is the vaudeville theatre in londons west end from 2017 directed by Dominic Dromgoole if the classic spring theatre company, previouslt of the globe,

  10. Great post 🙂 As for favorite plays into films, I have an extremely long list, so let me just say two from the top of my head. This one probably be in my top 1,000 or something, but I have to say that William Friedkin did a phenomenal job of adapting both Bug and Killer Joe from stage to the screen. Both film were based on plays by Tracy Letts and If I am not mistaken, he also penned the scripts to the films as well. Anyway, keep up the great work as always 🙂

    P.S. Sorry, I was not on this blog earlier in the week. The reason for it was because I was on vacation 🙂

      1. I went to the Grand Geneva Resort in Wisconsin 🙂 It is a wonderful hotel and I think you would love it 🙂 Once again, keep up the great work as always 🙂

          1. Well, here is an example from Bug in a monologue given to Agnes White (Ashley Judd) by Peter Evans (Michael Shannon) concerning the state of things. Let me e-mail you the link because it is kind of long:

            https://www.imdb.com/title/tt0470705/quotes

            Look for the words “Listen! Listen!” cause their is a lot of quotes on this page from there. Given that the subject matter is paranoia though, everything spoken from Evans feels uncanny especially with the current paranoia that has been sweeping the nation for a very very long time.

            P.S. I think it is neat that your grandparents owned a house on Green Lake. And I am also happy that you love Wisconsin 🙂

  11. The film industrys mosr successful experiment in turning plays into films get aa fairly good rundown here. See any of them you can The first season was the best, with my favorties being The Iceman Cometh and A Delicate Balance, Amazon has the whole 14 film set for under $130

  12. Enjoyed the post and the comments. A Streetcar Named Desire and Casablanca are the first titles that come to mind. Also Hamlet. It is very difficult to destroy a great play 🙂

    1. Welcome, Inese. Casablanca hasn’t been mentioned, so I’m glad you did. It’s a wonderful movie. What scene comes to mind when you think of it? There’s a lot of memorable lines. One of my favorites is “We’ll always have Paris.”

      1. my favorite line in casablanca is ricks answer to why he came to casablanca. For the Water. and the response There is no water in Casablanca, to which rick replies, I was misinformed. Then we see the bottle of vichy water thrown into the garbage. And of curse the Vichy was the Nazi government of France during the occupation.

    2. i have seen dozens of productions of Hamlet, both on stage and screen. Many were terrible, none were perfect,,,but all were touched by the brilliance of the play itself. This play cannot be destroyed, but neither can it be fully interpreted. Whatever direction is taken, something in the play will contradict it.

I ♥ comments.

Fill in your details below or click an icon to log in:

WordPress.com Logo

You are commenting using your WordPress.com account. Log Out /  Change )

Google+ photo

You are commenting using your Google+ account. Log Out /  Change )

Twitter picture

You are commenting using your Twitter account. Log Out /  Change )

Facebook photo

You are commenting using your Facebook account. Log Out /  Change )

Connecting to %s

Blog at WordPress.com.

Up ↑

%d bloggers like this: